A - 1) Means many things from: a, to, is, it, the, will etc. 'A' is said before action will or has taken place. This is the main Jamaican preposition for nearly everything.
A door - Out doors; outside.
A go - To go or will go. Mi a go a door. (I am going outside).
Agony - Sexual orgasm or sensation of sex.
A lie - Your lying; that is a lie.
All fruits ripe - Everything is just great. All is good.
All di while - All the time; sometimes; the time during. "All the while dem depon di bashment." (They are partying all the time).
Amharic - Language spoken in Ethiopia.
Amlak - Amharic (language of Ethiopia) for God.
An' - And.
A nuh mi - That's not me.. It's not me to.. I am not one to. "A nuh mi fi like it." (I am not one to like that).
Aright - Alright, sure, yes, okay.
Armageddon - the biblical final battle between the forces of good and evil.
At steppa - Hot stepper, a jail breaker and one in trouble with the law.
A true - It is true; I am not lying.
Babylon - 1) The oppressing and exploiting system. A place of evil. 2) The police.
Baddda - 1) Bother. "Naa badda mi." (Don't bother me)
2) Bad, more bad. "Mi badda than dem" (I'm more bad than them)
Bag O' Wire - Betrayer. In legend, he was Marcus Garvey's driver, who was responsible for betraying Garvey to the authorities and then disappear.
Bald head - 1) A Rasta label for one who is too caught up with the evil system Babylon. (see Babylon). 2) Anyone who is not a Rasta 3) Anyone who hasn't got dreadlocks
Bangarang - hubbub, uproar, disorder, disturbance.
Banton - A storyteller.
Batty, Battybwoy - 1) Battyman, used to describe homosexuals. 2) Butt.
Blackheart Man - a rascal, a hooligan.
Blessed - A Rasta word; blessing(s).
Bloodclot - Strong curse word.
Bobo - fool.
Bobo Dread - a Rastafarian sect based on the teachings of Prince Emanuel Edwards distinguished by turbin-like headdresses, flowing white robes and communal living.
Bogga Bogga is type of sandal or shoe. Worn by the poor.
Bredda - Brother.
Bredren (brethren) - Fellow friends and colleagues; brothers in unity.
Bwoy - Boy. This is a common term for anybody, male or female.
Ca, cah - Because.
Card - To play a joke or trick. Dem play a card pon mi.
(They tricked me)
Chaka - Messy and untidy.
Cha, cho - Expression of surprise. "Cha!" (What!)
Champion - A person who is extraordinary on the dancefloor and/or in the bed.
Chalice - The Rasta water bong/pipe that is made from a hollowed coconut.
Challwah - Another word for kutchie, which is a pipe used for the smoking of marijuana
Chatty - Overly talkative to the point of irritation.
Chewsday - Tuesday.
Chi chi - Gay, homosexual, queer. Chi-chi man. (Gay man)
Chiney - Chinese person (from China or from Jamaica).
Chuck - Behave (bad). "Chuck it on ya brother." (You behave badly towards your brother)
Chuck - Full-size truck.
Coppa - Copper; a term for a coin valued less than a dollar.
Collie - Marijuana/weed (same as 'Kali' or 'Cooly')
Cool Runnings - usually used at a time of departure on a long journey, meaning have a safe trip.
Coolie - Indian (from India or from Jamaica).
Coolie hair - Straight hair.
Corn - 1) marijuana 2) money 3) a bullet.
Craven - Greedy. Craven choke puppy. This is a famous line that depicts someone who wants everything but, when they get it, they can't handle it.
Creation Stepper - means you step it in and throughout Babylon without fear - cuttin' edge, livin' on the edge, fear no foe. Looking justice in the eye and saying: "What are you doin'?"
Crosses - Problems and misfortunes. "Mi always inna crosses." (I always have bad luck).
Culture - Reflecting or pertaining to the roots, values and traditions of Rasta's.
Cuss - Shouting fight with bad words.
Cutchie - A clay-fired earth piece that fits into a chalice needed to hold ganja; a cup.
Cyaan - Can't; can not. Note: some spellings have it as "Cyaan" or "Caan".
Cyaan done - Can't finish; never ending. "Mi lub yu kyaan done." (My love for you can't end)
Cyar - Car.
Dan - Than
Dandimite - Dynamite
Darkers - Sunglasses, shades.
Dat - That
Dawta - Daughter; woman, good woman friend.
Dear - Expensive. "Dat cost dear." (That is very expensive)
Deh - There - as in place. Also asks where something is. "Weh ih deh?" (Where is it?)
Deh 'bout - Nearby, close to.
Dehya - Here or there.
Dem - Them. Use dem after plural objects. "Di gal dem." (The girls.)
Depan (deh pon) - On; on top of; upon.
Des - Desperate. "I'm sey im des fi a food." (He said he's desperate for food).
Dey (dayah)- They; there, as in to be or exist. "Dey nuh odda way." (There is no other way) "Nuh milk nuh dey." (There is no milk there) "Dey say." (They say)
Di - The; did, was. "I'm did dun di ting?"
(Did he complete the thing?)
Dis - This.
Disya - This right here.
Don - A term and name for one who is well respected.
Doondoos - Referring to an albino.
Downpress - Rasta word for "Oppress".
Downpressor - preferred term for oppressor.
Dread - 1) Person who has dreadlocks, greeting to friend, expression of a good idea.
2) horrible, terrifying, fear. "It a go dread" (It is going to be terrible)
Dready - a friendly term for a fellow dread.
Dreadnut - Rasta word for "Coconut."
Drop legs - To dance.
Dub - Mixed music of electronic or instrumental reggae.
Dun - Done, finished, over with; kill. "Mi dun feel bad." (I am done feeling bad). "Mi dun dweet." (I have finished doing it)
Dun know - Don't know.
Dung - Down. "Come dung. Sidung" (Come down. Sit down)
Dunny - Dunza, money.
Dunza - Money.
Dutty - Dirty; also a popular slang expression, as in Dutty yo.
Dutty gal - Tin mackerel. This is common food for the poor.
Dween - Doing.
Dweet - Do it.
Ease-up - To relax. "Ease up uno self." (Relax yourselves)
Ends - A place. "Mi a go 'pon one ends still." (I am going to one place)
Enuh - You know
Eveling - Evening
Everything cook and curry - Everything is just fine, all is well.
Fa - For. "Wa mek yu dweet fa?" (Why did you do it for?)
Faas - Fast. "Tap drive faas." (Stop driving fast)
Facety - Bad mannered and nasty; acting fresh.
Fambly - Family.
Fass - Nosey.
Feel no way - Not taken in offense; not to worry or care.
Fi - To. This is the main Jamaican prepostion. "Mi naa waan fi do it." (I don't want to do it)
Fiah - Fire; also used to designate the smoking of ganja. "More fiah!" (More weed!)
Fit - when used of fruits and vegetables, it means that fruit is ready to pick and is fully grown, though not necessarily fully ripe to eat.
Flex - To chill and hang out having a time; to plan an activity.
Forward - Future; to go or to move.
Fren' - Friend.
Fram - From; since. "Mi dehya fram 6:00." (I have been here since 6:00) "Fram when mi a pickney mi a dweet." (I have been doing it since I was a kid)
Frass - High. " Mi tek two draw adi chaliss and mi frass." (I took two puffs of the bong and now I'm high)
Fresh - Not ready; still bitter or sour. "Di juice a fresh still." (The juice is still raw tasting)
Fuckery - A maljustice, something wrong and unfair; this is not considered a bad word. "A fuckery dat." (That was a messed up thing)
Gaan - Literally means gone. "I'm gaan." (He is gone)
'Gainst - Against. She fight 'gainst mi. (She fought against me)
Galang - Go along.
Ganja - Marijuana/weed.
Gansey - T-shirt.
Gates - Home. Many homes in JA have gates. One's "gates" is one's home.
Get - To have, to have had, got, gotten. Mi get fi realize. (I realize or I have realized)
General - A cool and smooth operator.
Gig - spinning top.
Ginnal - Trickster, con-person. "I'm so ginnal." (He is a tricky person)
Gimme - Give me.
Give tanks (thanks) - A expression of gratitude; a Rasta expression.
Gleena - Newspaper; the Jamaican Gleener.
Godeh (go deh) - Go there. "Mi no go deh." (I'm not going there)
Gone - Gone, passed, left. "Mi see har di Monday gone." (I saw her the passed Monday)
Gorgon - Outstanding person and very well respected. "I'm a don gorgon." (He is a master of situations)
Greetings - An opening greeting used heavily by Rastas.
Grow - To raise. "She grow mi." (She raised me)
Gwaan (gwan) - Go on. "Wa a gwaan?" (What's going on?)
Gwine - Going. "Wi gwine adoor." (We are going outside)
Gweh - Go away.
Hab - Have
Haffi - Have to.
Hanga - Closet; hanger.
Hangle - Handle.
Har - Her
Haste - To be in a hurry. Mek haste. (Hurry up)
Hat - Hurt
Hataclaps - A time of crisis, trouble or severe consequences.
Higgla - A street vendor; comes from the British word higgler.
Hol ih dung - Hold it down. Means keep it steady; make a secret; not to be told.
Honour (hon-nah) - A Rasta word; greeting or good-bye.
Hot steppa - Hot stepper, which is a criminal; fugitive; escapee from jail.
I and I - Rasta speech for me. Me, myself, and I.
I-ditate - Rasta word for "Meditate."
I-man, I-mon - Refers to the self. I-man waan dat. (I want that). Rasta for: Me or you.
I-ney - A classic Rasta greeting.
I-ree - Rasta word for "Irie", which means to be happy.
I-sire - Rasta word for "Desire"
Ites - Rasta word for "Heights." The I-tes colour for the Rasta is Red. This word is also used as a greeting.
Idren - Rasta word for bredren, which is taken from the Biblical word "Brethren."
Ignorant - short-tempered, easy to vex, irate.
Informa - Informer. One who narcs or tells on others--usually to the police. Informers are not respected.
Inna - In the. This word can also be spelled with only one 'n'.
Irie - Means everything is alright. Expression of feeling great and cool.
Iron bird - An Iron bird is an airplane. "Yu jus come off di ironbud." (You've just come off the plane)
Isis - Commending and hailing someone for a good deed. "Mi guh giv isis to Jah", meaning "I'm going to give praises to the Lord."
Isms & Skisms - Negative term denoting Babylon's classificatory systems
Ital - Rasta term for "Vital", which is a strict diet and way of life. Most commonly Rasta food that is pure, unprocessed, and unsalted.
Iwah - Rasta word for "Hour."
Iyah - Me (I) or you.
JA, Jamdown, Jamdung - Words for Jamaica.
Jacket - Bastard; a child that is raised by another father. (Usually from the wife cheating on someone else and the father never knowing)
Jah - 1) God; derived as a shortened form of Jahweh or Jehovah. The word is used in the Bible, in Psalm 68:4 (King James version).
Jah guide - A Rasta farewell and good-bye. Literally says that "God shall guide."
Jah know - Lord or God knows; an expression of agreement.
Jake, Johnny, Joe - Terms Jamaicans use to yell and call out when they see white Americans. Hey Jake!
Jammin' - 1) To be having a good time 2) to be dancing calypso/soca.
Jancro - John Crow, which is the name for the hated albino buzzard/vulture; also an expression of hate.
Jester - To joke; kidding. Mi naa jesta. (I'm not kidding.)
Jook - To pierce or poke; to have sex.
Kali; Cooly - Marijuana/weed (same as 'Collie')
Kebra Nagast - Amharic (language of Ethiopia) for 'Glory of Kings'.
Ketch - To ketch; to get, to achieve.
Ku - Look. "Ku pon dis." (Look at this)
Kutchie - A pipe used for the smoking of marijuana. See also: challwah, cutchie.
Kya - Care. "Mi nuh kya." (I don't care)
Kyarri - Carry.
Laas - Last; or lose.
Labba-Labba - Talking to much. Labba mout. (A chatter mouth)
Labrish - Gossip.
Lambsbread - A Rasta term for high-grade ganja.
Lang - Long. Lang time mi a wait. (I've waited for a long time)
Large - Very well respected. Dat large. (That's popular). Also used as a slang term, "Large up!" (Similar to "Big up" -a term of fond greeting and appreciation)
Lef' - Leave, left, passed.
Leggo - To let go; leave, let's go. She leggo har numba. (She gave out her number)
Legsus - A spoof on the luxury car, Lexus, but expresses the walking power of the legs.
Liad - Liar. Yu a liad. (You are a liar)
Lickle - Little.
Lickle more - A saying of goodbye.
Likky-Likky - One who is greedy about eating everything seen. Yu too likky-likky.
Lill y - Little, tiny.
Link up - Slang for "Hooking up"; getting or meeting together, ect. Mi link yu up layta. (I'll get with you later.)
Lion - 1) A righteous dread. 2) A great soul.
Lock up - Closed. Di store dem a lock up. (The stores are closed).
Madda - Mother.
Macca - Thorn, prickle. Dangerous.
Maga - Skinny and slender.
Maga Dog - Mongrel.
Manley - A Jamaican $1000 bill that has former prime minister Michael Manley.
Manners - Under heavy discipline or punishment.
Mash it up - Expression of doing well; like, "Break a leg"; be a big success.
Massive - Respected.
Mek - Let; make. Mek wi dweet. (Let us do it). Mek up yu mind. (Make up your mind). Dat di best eva mek. (That's the best ever made)
Menelik, Ras - Ethiopian nobleman who rallied his troops to resist Italian agression.
Memba - Remember.
Mi - Me, I, mine. Mi soon come. (I'll be there soon) [Can be pronounced Mee or Meh]
Mon - Perhaps the single most important Jamaican word, "Mon" can represent every person in Jamaica - man, woman, and child. Yes mon! (Yes man, woman, or child!)
'Mongst - Amongst
More time - Popular expression for saying good-bye. This must be said with power and voice. More time! (Later!)
Mos def - Most definitely. An expression meaning, of course, yes, sure, etc.
Mr. Mention - A real ladies man who is the talk of the town so to speak.
Mr. T - The boss.
Mudda - Mother.
Muss - Must.
My yute - My youth. Friendly expression of calling a friend or youger one. "Hey my yute." (Hey my friend)
Naa, nah - A variation of the word No.
Nanny - A Jamaican $500 bill worth about 11 U.S. dollars.
Natty - A Rastafarian term used to describe a member of the Rastafarian community.
Neba - Never
Neegle - needle.
Negga - Negro. See Nyega.
Negus - Amharic (language of Ethiopia) for 'king' or 'emperor'.
Nize - Noise
Notch - Don or top ranking badman.
Nuff - Plenty, too much, many, tons, a lot, etc.
Nuh - No, now, or know.
Nuh nuttin' - Not a big deal.
Nuh true? - Expression of verifying the truth; Isn't it so?
Nuh easy - A very popular expression saying one is acting a bit off the wall or uneasy, or when ones manners are not in order. "Yu nuh easy!"
Nutten - Nothen.
Nyabinghi - The traditional and orthodox Rastafarian movement of black supremacy and visions of the Ethiopian Zion; a Rasta spiritual gathering with drumming and chanting.
Nyam - To eat. "Mek wi nyam." (Let's eat)
Nyami-Nyami - Expression of one who eats too much.
Nyega - term for black person; nigger. Dutty Nyega. (Poor and trashy person - same as white trash in the U.S.) White nyega. (Jamaican born white person)
Obeah - The withcraft or spiritual science native of Africa. It is the type of voodoo in Jamaica. "She a put Obeah pon ya." (She cast a spell on you)
Odda - Other. Dey nuh odda way. (There's no other way.)
Ongle - Only.
Ooman - Woman.
Ooo - Who. "Is fi ooo?" (Whose is it?)
Ova - Over.
Ovastan, Overstand - Rasta word for "Understand".
Paki - Calabash, gourd.
Peas - Beans. "Rice an' peas." (Rice and beans)
Pickney - Child, children, kids.
Poas - Post; to mail.
Polytricks - Politics.
Polytricksters - Politicians.
'Pon - Upon.
Poppy-show - from puppet show, it is used in the idiom, tek smadi mek poppy-show, which means to make fun of someone or shame them, making them look ridiculous.
Priors - Prayers.
Pull - To open. "Pull di can a peas." (Open the can of beans)
Pum, Punash, Punaani - Female genitals.
Pussyclot - Curse word.
Pussyhole - Curse word.
Quashi - a peasant
Quips - a small portion
Quing-up - to compress
Quattie - of no value, the term is derived from the name that was given to the 1/2 penny that was used in Jamaica during British rule.
Radda - Rather.
Ragga - A style of reggae music. Ragga music relies heavily on a digital equipment.
Raggamuffin - A Jamaican ghetto dweller. Naa mess wit no raggamuffin. (Don't mess with a ghetto person)
Rakstone - Rocks, stones. Rakstone inna mi shoe. (I have rocks in my shoes)
Rass, Raas - Common word and expression meaning ass; also it can add intensity to objects or basic words in normal speech. Ending a word with clot makes it a curse word.
Rastaman - A male that practices Rastafarianism ( may or may not wear a dreadlocks).
Red - High or drunk. Also is the color of a person who is not fully Black. E.g. Red Rat.
Red yeye, Red eye - One who is covetous and jelous of things. Yu yeye too red.
Reespek - Respect. A very popular Rasta greeting that shows courtesy.
Rest - To relax and settle down. "Rest mon!" (Calm down!)
Righted - Correct and with sense. "Dat nuh righted." (That was with out sense)
Rockas, Rockers - Music to "rock" to. Slang for music and enjoying such.
Roots - 1) Derived from the expererience of the common people, natural indigenous. 2) a greeting. 3) name for a fellow Rasta.
Romp - To mess with or play. "Yu wanna romp wit me?" (Do you want to mess with me?)
Rude bwoy - A basic slang term. Can be a common greeting to a cool friend or it can describe a tough guy, rebel, or criminal. Wa'ppun rude bwoy? (What's up man?) 'Im run di rude bwoy bizness. (He runs the criminal business).
Run a boat - A saying where many people will cook and eat a big dinner.
Sa, sah - Sir.
Salt - Bad luck, unlucky. Mi get salt. (I was unlucky)
Sapps - A man who is controlled by a woman.
Satday, Satnight - Saturday and Saturday night.
Satta - Relax, chill. "Satta man."
Science - A term for the following of the Obeah witchcraft cult practice. "She a scientist becaa she follow di Science people dem." (She is an occult practitioner [Obeah] because she follows people of that cult)
Scenty - Smelling good; a good scent. "Mi put mi turn on perfume an mi scenty." (I put on my "Turn on" perfume [turns on the woman] and I smell good)
Screw - To be angry. "Screw face." (An angry face)
See it - Slang for "Do you understand or do you see".
Seen! - I agree, I understand.
Seen? - Do you understand?
Selah - Selah (a biblical term) is used in reggae mostly to accentuate the magnitude and importance of what has been said, and often is a sort of substitute for 'Amen'.
Sensimillia - A term used for marijuana/weed without seeds.
Shorty - This is a slang expression similar to saying 'chick' or girl.
Shot - To shoot, shot, to have been shot. "Dem shot 'im dead." (They shot him dead)
Sidung - Sit down.
Sight - A Rasta term for, "Do you SEE or UNDERSTAND?"
Sistren - A reference or greeting to a group of women - usually formal; sistren are the opposite of "bredren or bredrin". "Hi sistren!" (Hi ladies!)
Si'ting - Something; a thing that you don't feel like calling the proper name. Mi a go get dat sinting. (I am going to get that thing)
Skank - 1) To dance to reggae music. 2) to move with cunning.
Slackness - Vulgar lyrics popular in DJ singing.
Slump - The slums or ghetto. "Dis a di slump." (This is the slum)
So - Like that; such as that, like such, ECT. This is just a common expression used to decribed anything. Almost always comes at the end of the sentence. Wa mek yu galaan so?(Why are you behaving like such?) Wa mek yu sweet so? (Why are you so sweet?)
So-so - 1) Only, solely. 2) Weak, palid.
Soon come - Term used for general replies in saying that one will be back. However, it does not mean necessarily that one will actually come promptly. Mi a soon come. (I'll come soon)
Sound system - Huge mobile stereo setups manned by DJs, who became celebrities as they traveled Jamaica to host open-air dances.
Spliff - A very large cone-shaped marijuana cigarette.
Spring - To sprout.
Stay - To leave alone or let be; to wait; the way someone is. Mek it stay. (Let it be.) Jus stay deh. (Just you wait.) See 'ow yu stay? (Do you see how you are?)
Step - To leave. "Mi step out yah." (I am leaving now.)
Su-Su - To gossip and spread rumours. The sound of whispering in one's ear denotes gossip and backbiting. "Nuh su-su pon mi back." (Don't gossip behind my back)
Sufferation - Major suffering, poverty, and trials. A pyur sufferation inna gwaan inna di ghetto. (There is pure suffering going on in the ghetto)
Sufferer - A poor person struggling to survive.
Sum'ady - Somebody.
Sup'm - Another way of saying "Something".
Swaaty - Fatty.
Tack - Bullet.
Tall - Long. Har hair tall, ee? (Her hair is long, huh?)
Tallawah - Strong and sturdy.
Tam - A large oval-shaped Rasta hat used to cover dreadlocks.
Tan - Stay. " Tan deh nuh move." (Stay there and don't move)
Tanks - Thanks.
Teet - Teeth.
Teif - Thief; to steal. "Di teif a teif mi tings." (The thief has stolen my things)
Tek - Take or get. Tek time. (Take time / slow down)
Tess - Test. Yu waan tess mi? (Do you want to test me?)
The I - (pron.) - you, yourself, yours.
Trash an ready - A popular slang expression meaning to be very stylish and fashionable.
Tree - Tree; also the number three.
Trotters - Trotters are the feet of pigs, which are part of various dishes in Jamaica.
Truu - Truth; true; through; threw.
Truss mi - Trust me. This is an ever-popular expression used when agreeing with some one. Basically means: "Oh yeh, believe me, I know", ect.
Truut - Truth past tense. 'Im tol di trut. (He told the truth)
Tun - Turn. Im tun deh. (He turned there)
Undastan - Understand.
Uno or unno - The plural form of you, you all, the all of you, ECT. Also means all. Uno yu. (All of you)
Upful - Positive feelings. Yu so upful. (You are cheerful.)
Uphill - Positive, righteous.
Uptown - The upper classes.
Usband - Husband.
Van - Pick-up truck.
Vank - To beat, eliminate, or conquer. Comes from the word vanquish.
Version - Version; popularly an instrumental version, can be found most of the time on the B-side of a single.
Vex - This the key word that is used to mean angry, mad, upset, furious, ECT. Naa mek mi vex, mon! (Don't make me mad!)
Wa, Wah - What.
Wa do dem? - What's up with them?
Wa mek? - Why
Waan - Want; need.
Wa'ppun - What's happening? This is the most popular greeting used, with the same meaning as "What's up."
Weh - Where; past tense of was; present tense of is; that is.
Wear - To wear; it is worn, worn, wears.
Wenchman - The wenchman snapper is a small, large-eyed fish.
Wheels - Car.
White squall - White squall is the hunger driven effect on someone's lips, they turn whitish.
Whole heap - Slang for very large quantities; a lot, a whole heap. Very common to use.
Wi - We, us, our, ours. "Yu a come wit wi?"
(Are you coming with us?)
Wicked - Slang for bad or evil. Dat wicked, nuh?
(That's cool, huh?)
Wit - With.
Wolf - A non-Rasta dreadlocks.
Wrap up - Slang for kidding or joking. "Mi naa wrap up." (I am not joking)
Wutless - Worthless. When used in conjunction with a man it means one who is lousy in bed. "I'm a wutless bwoy." (He is a worthless, sexually useless, man)
X amount - Countless; many. Mi get x amount a lovin'. (I receive plenty of love/sex)
Ya, Yah - You, here, or hear. Can also mean yes.
Yaga Yaga - Dancehall slang. A way to big up a brethren; to express a greeting or attract attention.
Yahso - Over here; right here.
Ya nuh see it? - Slang for, you know?
Yaad, Yard - Place of residence, house, home. "Tek mi a mi yaad." (Take me home) "Mi baan a Jamaican Yardi." (I was born a Jamaican)
Yat - Rastafarian term, meaning 'to cook'.
Yeh - Yes.
Yeye - Eye.
Yeyewata - To shed tears, cry.
Yod - To trod.
Yuh - You.
Yuut, Yute - Youth. A popular name for calling a friend; can also refer to someone younger. Also popular using man as ending. Yu a mi bredrin fram yuuts. (You're my friend from youth)
Zed - The letter Z. Fram A to Zed. (From A to Z)
Zion - 1) For Rastafarians, Zion is to be found in Africa, and more specifically in Ethiopia, where the term is also in use. Some Rastas believe themselves to represent the real Children of Israel in modern times and their goal is to repatriate to Africa, or to Zion.
2) "Zion" stands for a Utopian place of unity, peace and freedom, as opposed to "Babylon" (see Babylon).